N-D labeled arrays and datasets in Python

xray is an open source project and Python package that aims to bring the labeled data power of pandas to the physical sciences, by providing N-dimensional variants of the core pandas data structures.

Our goal is to provide a pandas-like and pandas-compatible toolkit for analytics on multi-dimensional arrays, rather than the tabular data for which pandas excels. Our approach adopts the Common Data Model for self- describing scientific data in widespread use in the Earth sciences: xray.Dataset is an in-memory representation of a netCDF file.

See also

Get in touch

  • To ask questions or discuss xray, use the mailing list.
  • Report bugs, suggest feature ideas or view the source code on GitHub.
  • For interactive discussion, we have a chatroom on Gitter.
  • You can also get in touch on Twitter.


xray is available under the open source Apache License.


xray is an evolution of an internal tool developed at The Climate Corporation, and was originally written by current and former Climate Corp researchers Stephan Hoyer, Alex Kleeman and Eugene Brevdo.